What is a Quantum Computer?
A Quantum computer is a tool for processing information with the principles of quantum mechanics. This computation has different properties from classical computing.
Then, Quantum computers have different processors from classic computers.
Classic computer processors use silicon-based chips. The quantum computer uses a quantum system such as atoms, ions, photons, or electrons.
Quantum computers take the unique behaviors of quantum physics—such as superposition, entanglement, and quantum interference—and apply them to computing. It introduces new concepts to traditional programming methods.
These concepts provide the basis for quantum algorithms for processing complex information.
In superposition, a quantum particle is a combination of all possible states. These particles fluctuate until they are observed and measured. One way to illustrate the difference between binary position and superposition is to imagine a coin. Classic bits are measured by “flipping a coin” and getting heads or tails. However, if you look at a coin and see heads and tails at the same time, and every state in between, the coin is said to be in a superposition.
Now, let’s say your friend comes over and wants to take a picture of you while exercising. Most likely, they will get a blurry image as you jump left and right.
It’s different if you are a quantum particle. Because there are interesting things that will happen.
So, no matter where you are when your friend takes a picture, the result will always show either to the left or to the right.
This is because the act of observing or measuring quantum particles breaks the superposition state.
Even if it’s broken down, in quantum computing some processes can “rearrange” a particle back into a superposition state.
The next mystery of quantum computers is quantum interconnectedness. This concept is the ability of two or more quantum particles to become entangled with each other.
When particles become related, they form a single system in such away.
It also means that any operation or process you apply to one particle is also related to another particle.
The effect of quantum measurements also applies to particles that bind to each other.
How does Quantum Computing Work?
A quantum computer has three main parts:
- Areas that store cubits
- Method for transferring a signal to a cubit
- A classic computer for running programs and sending instructions
Another type of cubit housing uses a vacuum to help minimize vibration and stabilize the cubit.
Use of Quantum Computer and Application Areas
This tool can’t do everything any faster than classical computers, but in some areas, they have the potential to make a big impact.
Quantum computers work very well for modeling other quantum systems because they use quantum phenomena in their computations. This means that the system can handle the complexities and system ambiguities that would overwhelm classic computers. Examples of quantum systems we can model include photosynthesis, superconductivity, and complex molecular formation.
Classical cryptography—such as the widely used Rivest–Shamir–Adleman (RSA) algorithm to secure data transmission—relys on difficult-to-solve problems such as factorization of integers or discrete logarithms and the presence of quantum computers can solve most of these problems.
Quantum Machine Learning
Machine learning on classic computers is revolutionizing the world of science and business. However, training machine learning models are computationally high, which has hampered this field’s scope and development. To accelerate progress in this area, we are looking at ways to design and implement quantum software that enables faster machine learning.